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Greg Rodgers

Is Mongolia Part of China?

By May 31, 2012

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Mongolian man

Photo by David Berkowitz / Creative Commons

Officially: No, Mongolia is not a part of China.

Mongolia has their own language, prime minister, parliament, and president.

What is known as 'Inner Mongolia' on the border of Russia and the independent state of Mongolia is an autonomous region belonging to the People's Republic of China.

Mongolia declared their independence in 1911, however, the Republic of China had other plans for the region. Chinese forces occupied part of Mongolia until Russia invaded in 1920. Russia decided to support the creation of an independent, communist government in Mongolia. With the Soviet Union's help, Mongolia once again declared their independence -- ten years after the first attempt -- on July 11, 1921.

Only in 2002 did China stop considering Mongolia as part of their 'mainland area' and removed it from maps of their territory.

Despite the struggle for independence and world recognition, Mongolia still somehow maintains good international relations today with the U.S., Russia, China, Japan, and India -- countries that often have conflicting interests.

Today, Russian is still the most widely spoken foreign language in Mongolia, but English is spreading widely.

July 21, 2012 at 8:41 am
(1) I'm mongolian says:

Mongolia, as a part of the Great Mongol Empire, had never been part of China. From the day Genghis khan founded the Great Mongol Empire in 1206 to the death of the last Grand Khan of the Mongols, Ligdan Khan in 1634, the Mongol nation had been an independent state for more than 400 years.Inner mongolia was never part of China. Mongolia was never part of China and, in fact, China never fairly treated the Inner Mongolians as a part of their own people.

November 18, 2012 at 10:21 am
(2) qahartatar says:

mongolia isn’t a part of china,but a part of a much greater empire,which includes mongolia,china proper,tibet,east Turkestan
and manchu.outermonglia can’t represent mongolia,especially the orthodoxy of lelegitimacy of the whole monglia.innermongolia is the inheritor of mongolia culture,we can write with traditional type,we own the capital of great yuan,we live with our brother —Turehot,Heshuote,we have so huge a country that
.do you really think that government of peoples’ republic china has done nothing to us ? monglians and many other people have been protecting monglian culture for a long time.manchu respect us ,tibetan like making friends with us,and chinese who are called han ,also regard monglia as a great nation.the various cultures in modern china,has already made us live in another great yuan empire.as a mongolian,one must has the ambition to rebuild great mongol empire,and modern china is the first step to help achieve this dream.

December 1, 2012 at 6:57 pm
(3) Sherry says:

Since you have better knowledge and insight, gahartatar, can you give your opinion on how Mongolia has received independence that is still denied to Tibet? Seems from reading this quickly that the situations are not that dissimilar. So glad you both posted. Both informative & love people who celebrate their culture as these postings suggest you both do!!

December 3, 2012 at 11:24 am
(4) qahartatar says:

In fact, highly developed level of steppe states and the influnence exerted by foreign countries are the decisive reasons that mongolia tends to be independence.The concept of nations brought into East by European would be a belivable evidence.but not the whole thing.

The states,such as Liao,Jin,Mongolia,or Yuan,and Qing,had alread owned their own National Consciousness.But this kind of conception didn’t exist in tibet and xinjiang.The geographical obstacles prevented Tibet from developing into a stable and powerful Empire.the only connection between tibet and west was culture,but its political and other aspects of cultures are much closer with east—china proper,mongolia and manchu or other countries. And what we usually see is that tibet was always devided into many little kindoms by themselves.Tibet’s real glory just lasted for about 200 years.Compared to Mongolia,or other steppe states and China empire,Tibet was much weaker than all of them in most time.It must seek a protector.Because of the Himalaya and the conflicts inside,tibet couldn’t find a suitable protector from its west.So,when any of us talk about the history of tibet,we focus most on the relationship between tibet and the east,rather than india.And,in most time,tibet and the east all maintained a peaceful era.

On the contrast,monglia,and its predecessors,Liao,Jin,they didn’t need to find a real alliance all the time.They were much more open to other place,and owned a strong power to dominate others.And after the collapse of Tang dynasty,Song couldn’t reach the achievement like tang.And Khitan,Jurchen and mongolia developed the consciouse of their nations in the huge conflicts between them and song,or the others.Collision and conflic are helpful of shapping a nation. we can just find peace in tibet and the east.

December 6, 2012 at 7:36 am
(5) china is bullying mongolia says:

yeah,thank you so much.many people things mongolia is part of china

April 1, 2013 at 4:29 am
(6) fasinatedamerican says:

I have just met a beautiful Mongolian girl and doing research of Mongolian people. I am surprised how ignorant Americans are of the Mongolian People. I find it very fasinating and want to learn more of the culture of this beautiful person I have been fortunate to meet.

June 26, 2013 at 8:58 am
(7) Odtsetseg says:

I am a Mongolian girl born in Inner Mongolia.

June 26, 2013 at 9:26 am
(8) Odtsetseg says:

The government of china once promise that Inner Mongolia is autonomous,but we almost have no right to inherit and carry forward our own Mongolian language and culture.
Lots of school where teachers teach in Mongolian have been closed forever,and there is no school in somu ,gachaa so far.Can you imagine there is only one Mongolian high school in hulun buir (its size is almost Shandong province+Jiangsu province)now?
The weather in Mongolian steppes can be very crazing,so if we want to learn knowledge through our mother tongue we have to go far away from our home and live in school until holiday….More children have no choice but to go to Chinese(hytad)learn nothing do with Mongol since the number of Mongolian school is so few.
This is just a small aspect of Mongolian in China.
Forgot to say,The government of China have a policy to reward Mongolian who don’t received education by Mongolian.Sounds amazing?But it in true!

June 26, 2013 at 10:12 am
(9) Odtsetseg says:

Although the condition for us Mongolian is so bad,we will keep on
our Mongolian tradition despite the hardship and obstruction made by Chinese.The more harm they make,the more united Mongolian will be.
Anyway,in my heart there is only one MONGOL in the world,whether you live in Russia or China, in the past or in the future.
My brother told me that we should all safeguard the interests of Mongol uls,and fight for Mongol’s future.it’s our responsibility.

June 26, 2013 at 10:27 am
(10) Odtsetseg says:

mini saihan mongol,mini burhan eh oron mandtugai!~
today is a special day.elbegdorj,kkk~

September 7, 2013 at 1:03 am
(11) LoveMongolia says:

Watching the Miss World TV program in 2012 surprised me when I saw the title said the program was holding in Mongolia belonging to China. Perhaps, I might get confused between “Mongolia country and inner Mongolia”, but it made me more curious. Thank Odtsetseg for providing information to clear more.

September 29, 2013 at 3:32 am
(12) Anslem says:

What then is the different between the Mongols and Innermongolians?

October 24, 2013 at 7:51 am
(13) Chinese, I am says:

Inner Mongolia is part of China, PERIOD – just as when the Mongols defeated the Hans in 1271, China became part of the Yuan Dynasty, which was ruled by the Mongols!
If anyone wants to change the fact, try to defeat us first, until then, live with it !!!

October 30, 2013 at 1:46 am
(14) Indra the Pagan says:

Mongolians, remember your Khan? he was devoted to Uma & Tengri. Give India a base in Mongolia. We will take care of things brother.

November 9, 2013 at 10:16 pm
(15) Ying Han Wang says:

I’m Chinese and i consider Mongolia to be part of China.

December 2, 2013 at 10:21 am
(16) zolboo says:

To Greg Rodgers

It is 100% clear that you don’t have any knowledge about Mongolian history at all . Mongolia was never part of China. It is shame on you that you wrote false info.

December 5, 2013 at 5:42 am
(17) Greg Rodgers says:

Perhaps you misunderstood the first line of the article: I do not and have never considered Mongolia a part of China. The PRC claimed Mongolia and occupied the country for a period of time.

December 11, 2013 at 11:53 am
(18) Naiwen says:

when genghis khan ruled, it was in china, so it did belong to china once. how can it declare it’s independence then if it was never a part of China…? And why do people speak mandarin there?

December 21, 2013 at 1:35 am
(19) 孛儿只斤•苏和 says:

To Odtsetseg: I’m sure you’re not inner Mongolian, you’re just outer Mongolian. I feel inborn intimate to all Mongolians. Honestly, I hate the arrogant Hans, they always think they did most contribution to China, but actually, we Mongolians devoted inner Mongolia, XZ, Taiwan and Manchu to China for the first time in Chinese history. But obviously you don’t know the facts in China, which place would reward inner Mongolian if he can’t speak Mongolian??? Please don’t give nonsense here. My grandpa joined CCP when he was young to fight against Japanese invaders, my mom and me are also members of CCP, we live in Chifeng and good condition, we keep our tradition. I often read books and listen to lectures about Genghis Khan, what he taught us is not only to conquest, but also more importantly, to be loyal to my own country and sacrifice for it. It’s really a shame that I can’t write traditional Mongolian words now, but I’m learning. I’m now in Beijing, namely the capital city of my great Yuan dynasty, everytime when I see a foreigner do bad things in front of me, I really want cut his head down. I’m a linear descendant of our great Genghis Khan, I admire him very much, and our blood will exist forever. Maybe you’re an inner Mongolian who live in bad condition, but remember every country has poor people and your fate lies in the hands of yourself.

January 4, 2014 at 12:59 am
(20) Ling says:

I am third generation of Chinese born oversea. When I was very young, I read about Genghis Khan and Mongol. Ever since then I have been obsessed about Mongol. This is one place I really want to visit. I want to see Mongol and see how Mongolians live everyday. And what a relief knowing Mongol doesn’t belong to China. I am so proud of Inner Mongolians are keeping their own culture and not surrender to China. You go Mongolians!

February 14, 2014 at 6:23 am
(21) zhangfe1900 says:

To Odtsetseg:if according to what you say ,you must be very poor,how can you learn english ,can you speak Mongol?is your english better or Mongol?most of chinese only have one child,because of the policy of birth control.so ,how and where does your brother come form ,is he a bastard without your mother?

March 15, 2014 at 6:42 am
(22) Khuslen says:

Mongol is not part of China.We defeated the Chinese at the battle of Hiagt in 1921.There were 400 Mongols and 10000 Chinese but we won.There are hundreds of battles that we won.We talk better in Mongolian than our English or other languages.We have cities and cars,apartment,house,parliament,president,tradition,writing,indenpendece ,……and many.In 1755 both china and Mongolia were ruled by the Manchus.We were never ever ever ruled by the Chinese.

March 20, 2014 at 1:01 pm
(23) bolorma says:

Hi,I am Mongolian christian woman.Reading Bible carefully I found that we are Mongolians have the same tradition as the jewish people.Lived in the tents,now it is yurte, have long dresses,lived using livestock as sheep,goat,horse,cow and camels.Have the same traditions as jewish people.At the present time most of Mongolians believe in budda but Mongolians believed in God who created the universe,who lives in heaven etc.I wish you good luck to get-know us in the right way.Christie

March 25, 2014 at 8:26 pm
(24) Bayar says:

China and Mongolia have been struggling each other for thousands of years. Thats why they built the Great wall to protect their land from Mongolian invasion. It’s a largest and tallest wall-proof that Mongolia is not a part of China but their strongest enemy. People’s Republic of China just declared their independence in early 20th just like Mongolia did. Chinese people never won on wars. They have been cowards for their entire revolutionary period. Just think about that Japan, such a small country with such a small territory easily invaded China. Before that – every Mongolian tribe ripped them almost all the time. They always surrender, accept foreign leaderships and get rid of their genes by mixing a fckn millions of Chinese. Now they’r talking about annexing Mongolia? Must be kidding me. They’d better think about keeping their current situation. Tibets, Uighurs, Inner-Mongolians, Taiwanese are waiting for a proper moment to get rid of Communist Chinese government.

March 25, 2014 at 8:29 pm
(25) Bolormaad says:

Bolorma matraa yu geed maanagtaad erguuted bga dagz ve. Uhej dald or ter christteigee. Ergu yum chin erguuteh morooroo ergutehgui hutsad uliad bhin. Shashingaa dugai l shuteed yavbal yav. Bitii humuusiin tarhi ugaagaad bai matar min

April 3, 2014 at 9:32 am
(26) Batts says:

The Names – Mongolia and Inner Mongolia – are only derived from their geographic locations. In fact, there are other Mongolians in many countries from Afghanistan to Russia.
From the beginning of 1200 to 1368 when Mongolian Yuan dynasty collapsed, Mongolian Empire expanded very much and Mongols spread all over Asia and some parts of Europe such as Hungary and Russia. That`s why Mongolian descendants are found in many countries. However, the homeland of Mongolians includes current Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Xingjiang of China and Buryat Mongolia with a famous Lake Baikali which is now a part of Russia.
Mongolia began to lose its strength because its 40 million square km territory and many many ethnics were not easy to be ruled. (by the way, total population of Mongol people were approximately 500,000 to 1 million at that time)
And a new State – Manchu arose which was a nomadic nation just like Mongolians but later influenced too much by Chinese culture (that`s the reason why they are thought to be Chinese in Western world). And they conquered China and Mongolia(which was its weakest point).
After ruling 200 years,Manchu Qing dynasty fell and Mongolia declared its independence on December 26th, 1911. China declared its independence on the first day of the following year.
Unfortunately, Inner Mongolia remained in China just because of previous Manchu dynasty`s system and Russian interest to make Mongolia weak.
Today`s Mongolia is a heartland of all the Mongolians and the place where Chinggis Khaan was born, most of nomadic Empires and States such as Huns and Great Mongol was established. However, half of its territory was stolen by Russia and China for the 20th century.
So Mongolia was never a part of any country but a nomadic Manchu dynasty in which China was also ruled.
The most interesting question is how Mongolians are still independent. So you should focus on that more than this.

Thank you!
A student from Mongolia

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